Want to get back to the overview of the 1200 – 1450 CE section?
This post has everything you need to know about the Islamic Empire for the AP World History test. First of all, there wasn’t one empire called the Islamic Empire. Check out the Google slides to learn more!
Timeline of the Islamic Empire
622 CE: The Hijra, the migration of Prophet Muhammad and his followers from Mecca to Medina, marks the beginning of the Islamic calendar.
632 CE: The death of Prophet Muhammad and the subsequent consolidation of the early Islamic community under the Rashidun Caliphs.
Rashidun and Umayyad Caliphates (632-750 CE): Expansion of the Islamic Empire through military conquests, including the Arab-Byzantine Wars and the Arab-Sasanian Wars.
661 CE: Establishment of the Umayyad Caliphate, with its capital in Damascus.
750 CE: Abbasids come to power.
750-1258 CE: Abbasid Caliphate
756 CE: The Umayyad Caliphate’s capital moves to Cordoba in Andalusia (Spain), leading to the emergence of the Umayyad Emirate of Cordoba.
756 – 1492 CD: Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba
1037 – 1308 CE: Seljuk Empire in Turkey
1206 – 1526 CE: Delhi Sultanate in India
1250 – 1517 CE: Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt
1300 – 1923 CE: Ottoman Empire
1501 – 1736 CE: Safavid Empire in Persia
1526 – 1761 CE: Mughal Empire in India
Social Interactions in the Islamic Empire
The social structure of the Islamic Empire exhibited distinct features that reflected its cultural and religious diversity. In this multi-ethnic and multi-religious society, merchants held a prominent position, as trade and commerce were highly valued activities that facilitated cultural exchange and economic prosperity. While slavery was permitted, there were restrictions against enslaving Muslims or People of the Book (Jews, Christians, Zoroastrians).
The Islamic Empire had a patriarchal structure, but women enjoyed more rights and freedoms compared to many other contemporary societies. Women had the right to divorce, inherit property, use birth control, and even testify in court, affording them a degree of autonomy and legal standing uncommon in other regions. Additionally, the Islamic faith within the empire was characterized by its traditional tolerance, emphasizing peaceful conversions and coexistence among various religious communities. This ethos fostered a society where people of different faiths often lived and worked together harmoniously, contributing to the rich cultural tapestry of the Islamic Empire.
Political Interactions in the Islamic Empire
The politics of the Islamic Empire evolved significantly over time, reflecting the complex interplay of cultural, religious, and historical factors.
Early Caliphates (7th-8th centuries):
- The Islamic Empire began as a theocracy under the Rashidun Caliphs, with political and religious authority vested in a single leader.
- The expansion of the empire and diverse populations under Umayyad rule led to increased administrative complexity.
- The Umayyad Caliphate faced internal dissent and regional revolts, eventually resulting in its overthrow by the Abbasid Revolution in 750 AD.
Post-Abbasid Period (13th-16th centuries):
- After the Mongol sack of Baghdad in 1258, the Abbasid Caliphate lost its political relevance, and the Islamic world fragmented into various successor states, including the Mamluks, Slejuk Turks, and Delhi Sultanate.
- Later became the Ottoman Empire in Turkey, the Safavid Empire in Persia, and the Mughal Empire in India.
- The Ottoman Empire, in particular, emerged as a powerful and centralized imperial state with a hereditary sultanate.
The Spread of Islam
The spread of Islam was facilitated by a multifaceted approach involving the military, merchants, and missionaries. The military expansion, often associated with the early Islamic conquests in the 7th and 8th centuries, was a prominent factor in the expansion of Islam, as armies conquered vast territories, from Spain in the west to Central Asia in the east. Muslim merchants, engaged in transcontinental trade along the Silk Road, Indian Ocean, and Mediterranean, played a crucial role in introducing Islam to diverse regions through peaceful interactions and cultural exchanges. Sufi missionaries, or Sufis, complemented these efforts by spreading Islam through spiritual teachings, mysticism, and the establishment of Sufi orders. Their message of inner devotion and piety resonated with local populations, leading to conversions in many parts of Asia and Africa. This multifaceted approach contributed to the global spread of Islam, creating a diverse and interconnected Islamic world.
The Seljuk Turks
The Seljuk Turks were a prominent Turkic nomadic people who played a significant role in the history of the Islamic world during the medieval period. They were originally from Central Asia, and their rise to prominence occurred in the 11th century.
Founder: The Seljuk Empire was founded by Seljuk Bey, a chieftain of the Oghuz Turks, in the late 10th century. Seljuk Bey and his descendants led their people westward into Persia and Anatolia.
Expansion into Persia: The Seljuks initially settled in the region of Khorasan (in present-day Iran and Afghanistan) and gradually expanded their territory. They became the dominant power in Persia. They protected the Abbasid Caliph, but also fought for political power.
Anatolian Campaigns: One of the most significant achievements of the Seljuk Turks was their conquest of Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) in the late 11th century. Under Alp Arslan, the Seljuk sultan at the time, they defeated the Byzantine Empire at the Battle of Manzikert in 1071, opening the way for further expansion into Anatolia.
Sunni Islam: The Seljuks adhered to Sunni Islam, and their expansion into Persia brought them into conflict with the Shia Fatimid Caliphate in Egypt.
Political Organization: The Seljuk Empire was characterized by a feudal system, with local rulers or emirs exercising significant autonomy within the broader Seljuk state.
Influence on Islamic Art and Culture: The Seljuk period saw the development of distinctive architectural styles, particularly in the construction of mosques and madrasas (educational institutions).
Decline and Fragmentation: Over time, the Seljuk Empire began to fragment due to internal conflicts and external pressures, including invasions by the Mongols. By the 13th century, the Seljuk Empire had largely disintegrated.
Legacy: Despite their decline, the Seljuk Turks had a lasting impact on the Islamic world. Additionally, the Seljuks paved the way for subsequent Turkish empires, including the Ottoman Empire, which would become a dominant force in the Islamic world.
The Mamluk Sultanate
The Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt was a medieval Islamic state that emerged in the 13th century and lasted until the early 16th century. The Mamluks were a slave-soldier caste that played a significant role in the governance and military of the Islamic world.
Origins of the Mamluks: The term “Mamluk” means “slave” in Arabic. Mamluks were typically individuals who were enslaved as children, often from non-Muslim regions, and were trained as warriors and administrators. Over time, they gained power in various Islamic empires.
Ayyubid Period: The Mamluks initially served as slave soldiers under the Ayyubid Dynasty, which ruled Egypt.
Rise to Power: In 1250 AD, the Mamluks overthrew the Ayyubid rulers in Egypt and established their own dynasty. This marked the beginning of the Mamluk Sultanate in Egypt.
Political Structure: The Mamluk Sultanate was characterized by a complex political structure. It was nominally ruled by a sultan, but real power often rested with military commanders, known as amirs or emirs.
Conflict with the Mongols: The Mamluks are renowned for their victories over the Mongols at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260 and later conflicts. These victories halted the westward expansion of the Mongol Empire into the Islamic world.
Cultural and Architectural Achievements: The Mamluks made significant contributions to Islamic art and culture, including the construction of stunning mosques and madrasas (educational institutions). The Mamluk period is known for its distinctive architectural style, characterized by intricate designs and the use of colored stones.
Relations with Europe: The Mamluks maintained diplomatic and trade relations with European powers, particularly the Crusader states in the Levant.
Decline and Ottoman Conquest: In 1517, the Ottoman Empire, under the leadership of Selim I, conquered Egypt, marking the end of the Mamluk Sultanate. The Mamluks continued to play a role in Egyptian society, even under Ottoman rule, but as a subordinate class.
The Delhi Sultanate
The Delhi Sultanate was a medieval Muslim kingdom that ruled parts of the Indian subcontinent from the 13th to the 16th century. There were five different dynasties within the Delhi Sultanates.
Founding and Early Dynasties: The Delhi Sultanate was established in 1206 AD by Qutb-ud-din Aibak, a general of the Ghurid Empire (in modern Afghanistan). India was a prime target for invasion because it didn’t have a central power structure at the time.
Territorial Expansion: The Delhi Sultanate expanded its territory into northern and central India. At its zenith during the Tughlaq Dynasty, it controlled a vast region from the Deccan plateau to the Himalayas.
Administration: The sultans ruled with a combination of Islamic law (Sharia) and Persian administrative practices. The empire was divided into provinces (iqtas), each governed by a noble (iqtadar) who collected revenue and maintained law and order.
Religious Pluralism: The Delhi Sultanate was characterized by religious diversity, with a predominantly Muslim ruling class but a majority Hindu population. While there were instances of religious conflict, many sultans adopted a policy of religious tolerance and engaged in cultural exchange.
Architectural Achievements: The Delhi Sultanate era witnessed the construction of numerous mosques, forts, and mausoleums, often incorporating Indo-Islamic architectural styles.
Challenges and Fragmentation: The Delhi Sultanate faced challenges from external invasions, such as the Mongol invasions, and internal strife. This led to the eventual fragmentation of the empire into various regional kingdoms.
End of the Delhi Sultanate: The Delhi Sultanate came to an end in 1526 when Babur, the founder of the Mughal Empire, defeated Ibrahim Lodi at the First Battle of Panipat. The Mughals subsequently established their rule in India.
Mamluk Dynasty 1206 – 1290
Khalji Dynasty 1290 – 1320
Tughlaq Dynasty 1320 – 1414
Sayyid Dynasty 1414 – 1451
Lodi Dynasty 1451 – 1526
The Safavid Empire in Persia
The Safavid Empire was a significant dynasty that ruled Iran (Persia) and parts of the surrounding regions from the early 16th to the early 18th century.
Founder: The Safavid Empire was founded by Shah Ismail I, who claimed descent from the family of the Prophet Muhammad and established Twelver Shia Islam as the state religion. He declared himself Shah of Iran in 1501 and initiated the Safavid dynasty.
Religious Identity: One of the most defining features of the Safavid Empire was its adoption of Twelver Shia Islam as the state religion. This marked a significant shift from the Sunni Islam that had previously dominated in Iran. The Safavid rulers pursued a policy of consolidating and promoting Twelver Shia Islam within their domains.
Military Campaigns: The Safavid Empire engaged in military campaigns to expand its territories. They waged wars against neighboring states, including the Ottoman Empire, which was predominantly Sunni and a rival of the Safavids.
Art and Culture: The Safavid era is renowned for its contributions to Persian art, literature, and architecture. The empire saw the construction of magnificent mosques, palaces, and gardens. Persian carpet weaving also reached its pinnacle during this period.
Decline: The later Safavid rulers faced internal challenges, including power struggles, economic difficulties, and external threats from the Ottoman Empire and Uzbek incursions. The empire gradually weakened over time.
Afghan Invasion: In the early 18th century, the Safavid Empire fell victim to the Afghan invasion of Iran. The Afghan forces captured Isfahan, the Safavid capital, in 1722, leading to the collapse of the dynasty.
The Mughal Empire in India
The Mughal Empire was a major Islamic empire that ruled a vast portion of the Indian subcontinent from the early 16th century to the mid-19th century. It was known for its cultural, artistic, and architectural achievements.
Founding: The Mughal Empire was founded by Babur, a descendant of Timur on his father’s side and Genghis Khan on his mother’s side. In 1526, he defeated Ibrahim Lodi, the Sultan of Delhi, establishing Mughal rule in northern India.
Dynastic Succession: The Mughal Empire was ruled by a succession of emperors from the Mughal dynasty, including Akbar the Great.
Religious Policies: The Mughal emperors practiced religious tolerance, and the empire was characterized by a diverse religious landscape. While the Mughal rulers were Muslims, they ruled over a predominantly Hindu population. Akbar, in particular, is known for promoting religious harmony.
Art and Culture: The Mughal Empire was renowned for its contributions to art, culture, and architecture. The era produced remarkable works of Mughal architecture, including the Taj Mahal, the Red Fort in Delhi, and the Badshahi Mosque in Lahore. Mughal miniature painting also flourished during this time.
Economic Prosperity: The Mughal Empire was a major economic power, with a thriving trade network and a prosperous agrarian (farming) economy. It benefited from trade along the Silk Road and maritime routes.
Decline: The later years of the Mughal Empire were marked by political fragmentation, invasions by external powers, and economic challenges. The empire weakened significantly in the 18th century.
Colonial Rule: By the mid-19th century, the British East India Company had established control over much of India, effectively ending Mughal rule. The last Mughal emperor, Bahadur Shah II, played a symbolic role in the Indian Rebellion of 1857.
The Ottoman Empire in Turkey
The Ottoman Empire was a vast and influential empire that existed from the late 13th century to the early 20th century.
Founding: The Ottoman Empire was founded by Osman I, a Turkic chieftain, in the late 13th century. It emerged as a small state in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) and gradually expanded its territory through military conquests.
Conquests and Expansion: Under the leadership of Osman’s successors, the Ottomans expanded their empire by conquering neighboring regions. They captured Constantinople (modern-day Istanbul) in 1453, marking the end of the Byzantine Empire.
Suleiman the Magnificent: Suleiman I, also known as Suleiman the Magnificent, ruled from 1520 to 1566 and presided over a period of great expansion and prosperity. His reign is often considered the zenith of the Ottoman Empire.
Religious and Ethnic Diversity: The Ottoman Empire was characterized by its religious and ethnic diversity. While the ruling elite were primarily Turks and Muslims, the empire governed a wide range of people, including Christians, Jews, and various ethnic groups.
Legal and Administrative System: The Ottomans developed a sophisticated legal and administrative system, with the sultan at the top as both the political and religious leader. The Ottomans implemented a form of Islamic law known as Sharia and a system of governance called the “millet” system, which granted a degree of autonomy to religious and ethnic communities.
Art and Culture: The Ottomans made significant contributions to art, architecture, and culture. Ottoman architecture is known for its distinctive use of domes, arches, and intricate tile work. The empire also produced exquisite calligraphy and illuminated manuscripts (hand-written books with painted decorations that often included precious metals).
Military Power: The Ottoman military, particularly the elite Janissary corps, was a formidable force. The Ottomans were involved in numerous military campaigns and conflicts, including wars against European powers and the Safavid Empire.
Decline and Dissolution: By the late 17th century, the Ottoman Empire began to face internal strife, territorial losses, and economic challenges. It gradually lost its status as a dominant world power. The empire’s decline continued into the 19th century, and it became known as the “Sick Man of Europe.”
World War I and Dissolution: The Ottoman Empire’s involvement in World War I on the side of the Central Powers led to its dismemberment and partition by Allied powers. The empire officially ended in 1922 with the establishment of the Republic of Turkey, led by Mustafa Kemal Atatürk.
Trade and the Islamic Empire
Trade was pivotal in the Islamic Empire, facilitating the exchange of goods, culture, and ideas across vast regions. Trade also spread Islam as a religion. The empire’s strategic location at the crossroads of Asia, Africa, and Europe allowed it to become a thriving center of commerce. Key trade routes, such as the Silk Road and the Trans-Saharan trade routes, passed through Islamic territories, connecting distant lands. Islamic merchants, known as “sahib al-souq” or “caravan leaders,” facilitated this trade by organizing caravans and ensuring the safe passage of goods. Major urban centers like Baghdad, Cairo, and Samarkand became bustling marketplaces, hosting traders from diverse cultures. The Islamic Empire’s currency, the dinar and dirham, gained widespread acceptance, further promoting trade. Luxury items such as spices, textiles, perfumes, and precious metals were traded, enriching the empire’s coffers and cultural tapestry. Additionally, the Islamic Empire’s contributions to navigation, including the development of the astrolabe (a tool for determining your latitude) and improved ship designs, enhanced maritime trade, especially across the Indian Ocean, strengthening its position as a vital hub in the global trade network.
Religion During the Islamic Empire
Religion held a central and pervasive role during the Islamic Empire’s history. As the heartland of Islam, the empire adhered to the faith’s core principles, with its rulers being both political and religious leaders. The empire fostered religious diversity, granting a degree of autonomy to religious minorities through the “millet” system. Muslims, Christians, Jews, and others coexisted under Islamic rule, practicing their respective faiths and contributing to a rich tapestry of religious thought and culture. The Islamic Empire was a center of learning and scholarship, with the House of Wisdom in Baghdad serving as a prominent institution where scholars from various backgrounds studied and preserved knowledge from ancient civilizations. The empire’s religious tolerance and commitment to scholarship played a vital role in the preservation and transmission of classical Greek, Roman, and Persian knowledge to the medieval world. Additionally, the construction of grand mosques and religious institutions, such as the Dome of the Rock in Jerusalem and the Alhambra in Spain, exemplified the empire’s architectural and artistic contributions, reflecting the importance of religion in shaping its cultural heritage.
Branches of Islam
Shia (included Twelver Shia)
Sufi (spiritual branch)
The Millet System
The Millet System, a unique and innovative administrative approach, was implemented within the Islamic Empire to govern diverse religious and ethnic communities. This system, primarily associated with the Ottoman Empire, allowed for a degree of self-governance among religious minorities, including Christians and Jews. Each religious community, or millet, was granted the autonomy to manage its internal affairs, including legal matters, education, and religious practices. The leaders of these communities, known as millet leaders, served as intermediaries between their respective communities and the Ottoman authorities. This system helped maintain social order, fostered religious coexistence, and facilitated the collection of taxes and conscription. While it ensured a degree of protection and autonomy for religious minorities, the millet system also had limitations and could at times lead to tensions between different groups. Nonetheless, it stands as an intriguing example of how the Islamic Empire managed religious and ethnic diversity while maintaining stability and order within its vast territories.
A’ishah al-Ba’uniyyah, born in the late 15th century in present-day Egypt, was a remarkable and pioneering figure in the world of Islamic mysticism and poetry. She is renowned for her extensive body of mystical poetry, known as “divan,” which explores themes of love, spirituality, and the Divine. A’ishah’s works, written in classical Arabic, demonstrate her deep spiritual insights and her dedication to the Sufi path. Her poetry often reflects the concept of divine love as a means of attaining spiritual enlightenment, and her writings continue to inspire readers and scholars alike. A’ishah al-Ba’uniyyah’s contributions to Islamic mysticism and literature serve as a testament to the significant role women played in the intellectual and spiritual life of the Islamic world during her time and beyond.
The Islamic Golden Age
The Islamic Golden Age, spanning roughly from the 8th to the 13th centuries, represents a remarkable era of intellectual, scientific, and cultural flourishing within the Islamic world. During this period, scholars, scientists, and philosophers across the Islamic Empire made groundbreaking contributions to various fields of knowledge. Advancements in mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and philosophy were especially prominent. The House of Wisdom in Baghdad, a renowned center of learning, played a pivotal role in translating and preserving classical Greek and Roman texts, as well as those from other civilizations, contributing to the preservation and dissemination of knowledge. This Golden Age also saw significant progress in architecture, art, and literature, with magnificent monuments, intricate calligraphy, and vibrant storytelling. The Islamic Golden Age remains a testament to the importance of intellectual curiosity, cross-cultural exchange, and scholarship.
Nasir al-Din Tusi
Nasir al-Din Tusi, a 13th-century Persian polymath (a person with wide-ranging knowledge), stands as one of the most brilliant minds in the history of Islamic scholarship. Born in 1201, Tusi made pioneering contributions to multiple fields, including astronomy, mathematics, philosophy, and theology. For example, he made advancements in algebra, geometry, and trigonometry.
He revolutionized the study of astronomy by introducing innovative instruments and mathematical techniques. Tusi’s planetary models, like the Tusi Couple, challenged existing geocentric theories (the Sun revolves around the Earth) and paved the way for the later Copernican revolution (the Earth revolves around the Sun).
Beyond his scientific endeavors, Tusi was a prolific philosopher, ethical thinker, and theologian. His philosophical works, such as the “Nasirean Ethics,” explored ethics, politics, and metaphysics. Tusi’s legacy extends far beyond his era, influencing scholars and scientists for centuries.
Islamic Conquest: Al-Andalus came into existence in 711 AD when Muslim forces, led by Tariq ibn Ziyad, crossed the Strait of Gibraltar and defeated the Visigothic king Roderic at the Battle of Guadalete. This marked the beginning of Islamic rule in the region.
Cultural and Scientific Center: Al-Andalus became a vibrant center of Islamic civilization during the Middle Ages. It was known for its cultural diversity, religious tolerance, and contributions to science, philosophy, literature, and art. Scholars in Al-Andalus played a crucial role in preserving and transmitting classical Greek and Roman knowledge to Europe.
Umayyad Caliphate: The Umayyad Caliphate of Cordoba, established in 756 AD, was a significant political entity in Al-Andalus. The caliphate reached its zenith under Abd al-Rahman III in the 10th century when it became one of the most powerful and prosperous states in Europe.
Architectural and Artistic Achievements: Al-Andalus is renowned for its architectural marvels, including the Great Mosque of Cordoba and the Alhambra palace in Granada. The Cordoba Library, located in the heart of Al-Andalus, represents a significant cultural and intellectual hub during the Islamic Golden Age. With its extensive collection of manuscripts and its stunning architectural beauty, the Cordoba Library encapsulated the spirit of learning, coexistence, and artistic sophistication that defined this period in history.
Decline and Reconquista: The Christian Reconquista, a centuries-long campaign by Christian kingdoms in northern Spain to retake the Iberian Peninsula, gradually eroded Muslim rule in Al-Andalus. The fall of Granada in 1492 marked the end of Muslim rule in the region.
Legacy: Al-Andalus left an enduring legacy in Spain and beyond. Its contributions to science, mathematics, philosophy, and culture had a profound impact on the development of European Renaissance and Enlightenment thought. Additionally, many Spanish words, place names, and cultural elements have their roots in Al-Andalus.
Coexistence and Diversity: Al-Andalus was characterized by a degree of religious and cultural coexistence. Muslims, Christians, and Jews often lived alongside one another, contributing to a multicultural society that produced rich intellectual and artistic achievements.
Innovations of the Islamic Empire
Arabic Numerals: The adoption of the decimal system and the use of Arabic numerals (0-9) revolutionized mathematics and laid the foundation for modern mathematics and science.
Algebra: The word “algebra” itself comes from the Arabic word “al-jabr.”
Astronomical Instruments: Islamic scholars developed and refined a variety of astronomical instruments, including the astrolabe, quadrant, and celestial globes, which were instrumental in celestial observations and navigation.
Optics: Islamic scientists like Ibn al-Haytham made significant advancements in the field of optics, with pioneering work on the principles of light, lenses, and vision. His “Book of Optics” had a profound impact on European optics during the Renaissance.
Hospitals and Medical Advancements: The Islamic world established some of the world’s earliest hospitals, such as the one in Baghdad. Islamic physicians made significant advancements in medicine, including the compilation of medical encyclopedias, the use of surgical instruments, and the understanding of contagious diseases, including airborne diseases discovered by Ibn Sina.
Pharmacy and Pharmacology: Islamic pharmacists developed techniques for extracting and preparing medicines from substances, laying the foundation for modern pharmacology. For example, they used opium for pain relief and alcohol for cleaning wounds.
Engineering and Architecture: Innovations in architecture and engineering included the development of pointed arches, domes, and intricate tile work, as seen in structures like the Great Mosque of Cordoba and the Alhambra Palace in Spain.
Water Management: The Islamic Empire made significant advancements in water management through techniques like qanats (underground water channels) and waterwheel systems for irrigation and mills.
Paper and Printing: Islamic scholars introduced papermaking techniques from China and played a role in the early development of paper, paper mills, and printing technology.
“Arabian Nights,” also known as “One Thousand and One Nights,” is a collection of Middle Eastern folktales and stories that have captivated readers for centuries. Written during the Islamic Golden Age, roughly between the 8th and 14th centuries, this remarkable work is often celebrated for its rich storytelling and imaginative narratives. It offers a treasure trove of non-religious literature, encompassing a wide range of themes, from love and adventure to magic and morality. Famous stories like “Aladdin’s Wonderful Lamp,” “Ali Baba and the Forty Thieves,” and “Sinbad the Sailor” continue to resonate with readers of diverse backgrounds. While some tales may contain elements of Islamic culture, “Arabian Nights” transcends religious boundaries, offering universal themes and moral lessons. It stands as a testament to the enduring power of storytelling to entertain, inspire, and connect people across cultures and beliefs.
Greek and Roman Texts
During the Islamic Golden Age, which spanned from the 8th to the 13th centuries, the Islamic Empire played a pivotal role in preserving and translating Greek and Roman texts. This period of intellectual flourishing saw the establishment of translation centers, such as the House of Wisdom in Baghdad, where scholars from various backgrounds translated and preserved classical Greek and Roman texts into Arabic. These translations encompassed a wide range of subjects, including philosophy, mathematics, astronomy, medicine, and more. Prominent works by Greek philosophers like Aristotle, Plato, and Galen, as well as Roman authors like Ptolemy and Euclid, were meticulously translated, studied, and built upon by Islamic scholars. The impact of this endeavor was twofold: it preserved the wisdom of the ancient world for future generations and facilitated the transfer of this knowledge to Europe during the later Middle Ages, sparking a revival of classical learning known as the Renaissance.
Want to get back to the overview of the 1200 – 1450 CE section?